Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Table of Specification

Table of Specification

       A table of specification (ToS) is the technical term given to the plan for writing items for a test. A table of specification should reflect what has been taught in the instructional sequence. In other words, the testing mode is a mirror of the instructional mode. Since instructional mode has basically two dimensions - content matter and intellectual process, the ToS should likewise reflect both content and process. By process we mean the intellectual level with which the student engage a specific content or unit of information. We can use the categories of Bloom's taxonomy to help define the process.

       In developing the ToS proceed with a plan which reflects not only on what has been taught, but also as what intellectual level the students are functioning. Furthermore, the test is designed to test achievement. All achievement test should be content-process valid.

Here is a video about Table of Specification from Nebraska Institute of Education.

Table of Specifications
Using Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy

Instructions: Look at the first question on your test. First determine which of your objectives it is correlated with. Second, look at the verb in the question to determine which level of the taxonomy it is correlated with. Put the number of the question in the box that corresponds to the correct objective and level. Complete this process for each question on your test.






Objective 1:

Objective 2:

Objective 3:

Objective 4:

Knowledge – remembering facts, terms,  definitions, and concepts. What?, list, name, define, describe.

Comprehension – understanding the  meaning of material. Explain, interpret,  summarize, give examples, predict, translate.

Application – selecting a concept or skill  and using it to solve a problem. Compute,  solve, apply, modify, construct.

Analysis – breaking material down into its  parts and explaining the hierarchical  relations. How does … apply?, work?,  relate to?

Synthesis – producing something original  after having broken the material down into its  component parts.
How do the data support ? How would you design an experiment that  investigates ...What predictions can you make based upon the data?

Evaluation – making a judgment based  upon a pre-established set of criteria. What judgments can you make about …? Compare and contrast … criteria for … ?

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