__Table of Specifications__
A
Table of Specifications is a blueprint for an objective selected response
assessment. The purpose is to coordinate
the assessment questions with the time spent on any particular content area,
the objectives of the unit being taught, and the level of critical thinking
required by the objectives or state standards.
The use of a Table of Specifications is to increase the validity and
quality of objective type assessments.
The teacher should know in advance specifically what is being assessed
as well as the level of critical thinking required of the students. Tables of Specifications are created as part
of the preparation for the unit, not as an afterthought the night before the
test. Knowing what is contained in the
assessment and that the content matches the standards and benchmarks in level
of critical thinking will guide learning experiences presented to
students. Students appreciate knowing
what is being assessed and what level mastery is required.

Any
question on an assessment should require students to do three things: first,
access information on the topic of the question. Second, use that knowledge to
complete critical thinking about the information. Third, determine the best
answer to the question asked on the assessment.

-------

A Table of Specifications is a two-way chart which describes the
topics to be covered in a test and the number of items or points which will be
associated with each topic. Sometimes the types of items are described as well.

The purpose of a Table of Specifications is to identify the
achievement domains being measured and to ensure that a fair and representative
sample of questions appear on the test.

As it is impossible, in a test, to assess every topic from every
aspect, a Table of Specifications allows us to ensure that our test focuses on
the most important areas and weights different areas based on their importance
/ time spent teaching. A Table of Specifications also gives us the proof we
need to make sure our test has content validity.

Tables of Specifications are designed based on:

- course objectives
- topics covered in class
- amount of time spent on those topics
- textbook chapter topics
- emphasis and space provided in the text

A Table of Specification could be designed in 3 simple steps:

1. identify the domain that is to be assessed

2. break the domain into levels (e.g. knowledge, comprehension,
application …)

3. construct the table

The more detailed a
table of specifications is, the easier it is to construct the test.

-------

__How to Prepare a Table of Specification?__

The following is a simplified method of preparing a Table of Specifications.

1. List all the topics that are included in the subject or course.

2. Assign corresponding percentages based on the professional requirements or

institutional requirements. Below is an example:

Subject - CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 2

Topics included:

a. automation - 20 %

b. electrolytes - 15 %

c. enzymology - 25 %

d. endocrinology - 20 %

e. toxicology - 20 %

This gives a total of 100 %

3. Decide on the number of items that you would like the test to be. Let's say you

wanted a 160 item - test; the number of items per topic would then be:

a. automation - 20 % - 32

b. electrolytes - 15 % - 24

c. enzymology - 25 % - 40

d. endocrinology - 20 % - 32

e. toxicology - 20 % - 40

This gives a total of 160 items.

4. Assign the specific type of question you would like to ask depending on what

skill or cognitive learning, you would like to emphasize. For example, you would

like to emphasize the principles in automation, then you may prepare the

questions this way:

a. automation - 32 items

Essay = 10 questions

Identification = 12 questions

Multiple choice = 20 questions

This gives a total of 32 items.

This also is done with the rest of the topics.

## No comments:

## Post a Comment